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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. APA format is the official style used by the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and other social sciences. Check out this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for hotel service writing papers in APA format. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. Watchmen Essays! The sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to the format of an service quality, APA style title page. Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the page. The title should be at the top half of the page and should be centered between margins.
Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the title of your paper, your name, and essay crimes your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in length. Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. Hotel Dissertation! or Ph.D.) before and after your name. Your title should be a very concise statement of what the reader will find in the paper. In many cases, your title will identify the major variables and the relationships between them. Your Bedroom Window Essay! For example, #34;Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance#34; is an example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is about. The APA style guide also advises writers to avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;.
You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title. All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in service dissertation, the reference page. Student! The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. The purpose of this page is to provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. Hotel Quality Dissertation! One of the on discipline, first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the article in hotel dissertation, your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Not Wear! Conversely, if a source appears on hotel quality dissertation your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Violence Games! Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Your references should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced.
Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented. Dissertation! In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized. The title should not be placed in student should not wear uniform essay, quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e. The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and journals should appear in hotel, italics. In the essay crimes, case where the same author is cited multiple times for hotel service quality dissertation different works, start by listing these references in watchmen essays, chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to the most recent one. Service! Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data.
However, it is important to essay on discipline in student life note that tables are not simply used to quality dissertation replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of student should not wear, your paper. The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to understand. Dissertation! Basic Rules for Tables in APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3).
Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and , in , of , with , etc.). For example, Correlations Between Age and should not wear Test Scores. Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Each table should begin on a separate page. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. According to service quality dissertation the new sixth edition of the essay crimes, APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. Service Quality Dissertation! The key is to keep the table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper.
Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. Controversy! You should use a font that is large enough to read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the reader. Stick to reporting the most important data. Remember that your table is there to supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper. Do not feel the need to discuss every element of your table in your text.
Instead, mention key highlights and tell the reader what to look for in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. Hotel! The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g. Watchmen Essays! M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. Additional Notes to an APA Format Table. Service! If additional explanation is video games controversy essay, needed, a note can be added below the table.
There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes. Hotel! General notes refer to essay crimes some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level. Is the table needed to present data or could the service, data simply be presented in the text? Does the title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about? Is the spacing consistent throughout the table? Does the genealogy sparknotes, body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in hotel, notes? American Psychological Association. (2010).
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Author: Washington, DC. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Consult the image below for examples of journal articles in APA format. Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and essay crimes proper nouns.
Italicize the name of the service quality dissertation, publication and genealogy second sparknotes the volume number. The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by their initials. Next, the publication year is enclosed in hotel service dissertation, parentheses and followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of student should uniform essay, which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the quality dissertation, article should also be included. Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Referencing electronic sources in genealogy sparknotes, APA format requires special style concerns. Electronic References Are Similar to Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to that of any other reference. However, you do need to include the date the dissertation, reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the document.
As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Describe View Bedroom! Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher). Many publishers will include the DOI on hotel service dissertation the first page of an electronic document.
If a DOI is essay crimes, available, simply include it at the end of the service quality dissertation, reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.
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Vet Nurses and other support staff. Greencross Vets, Coburg, Vic (posted 5th October) Full Time Practice Manager. Full Time Practice Manager. Over 1900 veterinarians and quality, vet nurses across Australia have chosen a career with Greencross Vets. Our vets and vet nurses benefit from the essay crimes, resources that the largest veterinary group in Australia provides including an industry leading education program, business support for better work/life balance and career opportunities throughout the 135 plus veterinary related businesses in the Greencross Vets family. At Greencross Vets your passion for pets is exemplified by hotel service quality, practicing the highest standards of care. We invite you to video, join Greencross Vets for a rewarding and fulfilling career. We have an exciting opportunity available at our new and upcoming Coburg clinic for a Full Time Practice Manager to lead our team.
Our Coburg clinic will be located within a Petbarn store! We are looking for a confident, positive and mature team leader who is ready to drive our business forward using well-developed business, customer service, human resource and operational skills. The primary responsibilities of this position include: Managing the day to service quality dissertation, day operations of controversy our clinic, and ensuring that the Greencross values are adhered to Leading our team and communicating with a confident and positive attitude Ensuring that set clinic KPI’s are met each month Driving our business forward through creating and implementing local marketing initiatives Delivering outstanding service and care to all patients and owners Undertaking general nursing tasks, including pre-and post-operative care, animal pathology and emergency and critical care. The ideal candidate will possess the following: Previous experience as a Vet Nurse (essential) Proven experience in team management, with strong leadership team building skills, and the ability to provide coaching for team members and to build a positive culture in hotel quality your team Experience with Rx works preferred but not essential Strong communication skills High emotional intelligence Good business acumen Exceptional organisation and strategic planning skills. An industry leading salary (commensurate with experience) Access to our rewards clinic bonus schemes Commitment to your career development through access to continued education, including an internal CE Veterinary program, ongoing mentorship and regular performance reviews Access to a support network of like-minded professionals An interesting and varied role. If this role could be everything that you are looking for and you would like to become part of our highly motivated and successful Greencross team, please send your application outlining your interest suitability and including a resume to: The Point Vet, Northern Gold Coast QLD (posted 3rd October) Practice Manager.
We are searching for an incredible Practice Manager to fill the describe your bedroom, somewhat large shoes of our precious current departing PM who is hotel service, moving up north. The Point Vet is a well-known boutique (and privately-owned) clinic on on discipline life the Northern Gold Coast that prides ourselves on treating pets as if they were our own. We have a super dynamic team who are like our family €“ and in turn are treated as such. The role of Practice Manager will include the following key attributes but mostly, we are searching for dissertation, that person who is absolutely devoted to their job with passion and dedication. To become part of our valued team (who are not afraid to wear pink on Fridays), you€™ll need to have worked previously as a Practice Manager or have held at least five years in a senior Nurse level position.
Practice Manager (full-time) four day weeks and second essay, alternate Saturdays. Experience essential (to be in either a current Practice Manager or Head Nurse role) Managing the daily operations of the service quality, clinic. Ensuring our team is performing effectively, staff training. Going above and beyond to ensure quality control and customer service are upheld at all times. Leading our team of incredible vet nurses, ensuring adequate staff cover, compiling and monitoring rosters. Marketing the clinic and constantly evolving our community and essay crimes, social presence as well as setting marketing initiatives and hotel quality, clinic growth. Monitoring monthly financial and clinic performance reports.
An attractive salary package and a fantastic working environment top off this great position. Reckon you fit the bill? Send an watchmen essays, email to: firstname.lastname@example.org with your resume. Please, only hotel dissertation those who fit the criteria above need apply. Greencross Vets, Nedlands, WA (posted 3rd October) Full Time Practice Manager. Full Time Practice Manager. Over 1900 veterinarians and essay crimes, vet nurses across Australia have chosen a career with Greencross Vets. Our vets and hotel service, vet nurses benefit from the resources that the largest veterinary group in Australia provides including an video games controversy, industry leading education program, business support for better work/life balance and career opportunities throughout the 135 plus veterinary related businesses in the Greencross Vets family. At Greencross Vets your passion for pets is exemplified by practicing the highest standards of hotel service quality care. We invite you to student should uniform essay, join Greencross Vets for a rewarding and hotel service quality dissertation, fulfilling career.
Want to have more say in patient, client and staff management? Do you enjoy delivering the best patient, client care and want to essay crimes, be part of a friendly, dynamic team working in a well-equipped clinic? Do you seek professional growth and development, with support and encouragement from Australia’s largest pet care company? Our Nedlands clinic opened last year and service, is already building a great reputation in the community. Violence Video Controversy Essay. We are seeking a bright and service quality, enthusiastic Practice Manager to drive our landmark clinic forward.
With lovely patients to care for, a team to develop, customer service expectations to not wear uniform essay, exceed and a business to build - this isn’t a role for the feint-hearted! On top of exceptional clinical skills, we are looking for a switched-on, positive team player with a ‘’can-do’’ attitude and a strong desire for success. Previous experience as a Vet Nurse (essential); Relevant experience in team management, with strong leadership and team building skills, and the ability to build a positive culture in your team; Exceptional organisation and strategic planning skills; Excellent communication skills; Good business acumen and initiative; Experience with Rx works preferred but not essential; An eagerness to grow oneself and help others develop. There is a high level of accountability to hotel service quality dissertation, this role, as you would be responsible for on discipline in student, all the clerical and administrative duties of the business, reporting back to our senior management team via your local Area Manager. You will be well supported at a national level by a highly trained support team and locally supported by several other Greencross clinics in Western Australia. This role would consist primarily of: Managing the day to quality dissertation, day operations of of morals our clinic, such as stock management, rosters, client records and communications, and meeting monthly KPI’s; Delivering outstanding service and care to all patients and hotel quality, owners; Undertaking general nursing tasks, including pre-and post-operative care, animal pathology and emergency and nietzsche genealogy second sparknotes, critical care; Driving our business forward through creating and implementing local marketing initiatives; Skilfully leading and service quality, developing our team with confidence and compassion, and ensuring that the Greencross values are adhered to. We also offer industry-leading internal education programs, extra study leave and essay, a huge network of highly skilled practitioners and quality dissertation, managers.
Ready for your next adventure? Please send your application outlining your interest suitability, including a resume to: Animal Welfare League of Qld , Ipswich, QLD (posted 29th September) Full Time Senior Administration Officer. Senior Administration Officer. This is in student life, a fulltime role with a primary purpose of working in quality dissertation conjunction with our Practice Manager and describe view your window essay, Clinic Director to manage the hotel dissertation, operations at our Ipswich Community Vet Clinic. The role covers: Supervision of the Reception team. Manage the Financial Assistance programs. Accounts Receivable and Payable. Liaise with AWLQ Clients in watchmen essays a professional manner. Manage appointment schedule.
Assist with the maintenance of Patient Records. Our Ideal Candidate/Selection Criteria: Minimum 5 years Clinical/Reception duties. Qualified Vet Nurse €“ Desirable but not essential. Strong Customer Service. Demonstrated Leadership ability. Communication skills both written and oral. Empathize with clients. Complex problem solving. Interested applicants are required to send a current Resume and letter of hotel service dissertation application addressing the selection criteria to be eligible for essay crimes, inclusion in the recruitment process, please write Snr Administration Officer in subject line. email@example.com or call Glenise on (07) 5509 9049 for additional information.
AWLQ would like to thank all applicants for their interest in joining our team. Alphington Fairfield Vet, North-East Melbourne, VIC (posted 29th September) Full or Part Time Vet Nurse/Receptionist. Vet Nurse/Receptionist/Ambassador Role. We are looking for a mature, experienced Vet Nurse to help us develop and quality dissertation, grow our newest clinic. We are a proudly independent small business with two busy inner eastern suburb clinics. We have just taken the reins of a third smaller clinic from a retiring Vet who has been trusted and respected by the community for over 35 years. Violence Video Games Controversy Essay. We need an service quality, ambassador for our clinic to help build relationships with our new clients, show the community that we can provide the same care and love that their previous Vet showed, as well as promoting the new services and technologies we can provide to assist their pets to violence video controversy essay, have a long and dissertation, happy life.
The person we are seeking will: Provide outstanding customer service. Love building relationships with customers about their pets and families. Have a friendly and professional attitude. Show initiative and watchmen essays, maintain a smile under pressure. Have a proven ability to service quality, work unsupervised, sometimes sole charge. Have previous administration experience and an eye for detail. Assist the Vet on your duty as required. Be flexible, embrace change and hotel, growth. Be enthusiastic about describe your bedroom further learning and service, staff training. Possess qualifications (Cert IV or equivalent) and/or at least 3 years experience working within a Veterinary clinic as a Veterinary Nurse.
This position is controversy essay, not suitable for trainee nurses. Have a current valid drivers license (you may be required to transport patients between our clinics). We can offer you: A workplace where you will be encouraged and hotel quality, supported by other team members at our other clinics as well as the business owner and practice manager. An exciting challenge of growing a small clinic. A progressive and genealogy of morals essay sparknotes, positive environment.
Ongoing training and upskilling. Above award remuneration commensurate with experience. We are open to applications from service quality dissertation, candidates who are looking for full time or part time work, there may also be the possibility of working some shifts at our other clinics. If you think you would fit, and would like to join our team, then email a copy of your CV and cover letter to watchmen essays, Jo Ward - firstname.lastname@example.org. Explore our websites. Check us out on Facebook. Northern Territory Veterinary Services , Katherine, NT (posted 28th September) Veterinary Nurse - FULL TIME €“ NORTHERN TERRITORY VETERINARY SERVICES (2017 NT Small Business of the Year €“ Telstra Business Awards) Northern Territory Veterinary Services is looking for someone to fill a position amongst our dedicated team of vets and nurses. Experience and/or qualifications in Vet Nursing is essential. This is service dissertation, a busy companion animal practice based in the NT, currently staffed by a team of 4 vets and 3 nurses.
The practice is extremely well equipped and handles a large and varied caseload of dogs, cats, horses, native animals and exotic pets. Equipment includes digital x-ray (table based, portable and dental), ultrasounds, endoscopes, in house Idexx lab machines, iM3 dental machine, fluid pumps, pulse ox, ECG and BP monitors, advanced orthopaedic equipment, fully computerized with Rx works. We also operate Aboriginal Community Veterinary Services, providing services to remote indigenous communities throughout the whole NT. Visits last for essay in student life, 1 to quality, 14 days, averaging 5 days duration and are often to spectacular and otherwise inaccessible areas. The position involves all aspects of essay crimes animal care and vet nursing including feeding, grooming, medical care of patients, cleaning, surgical nursing, inventory management, reception duties and visits accompanying vets to remote towns, stations and communities.
The practice is modern, computerised, air-conditioned, surrounded by some of the most spectacular country in service quality Australia. Staff are supported to watchmen essays, pursue continuing education and ongoing training. The position is full time (38 hour week) with salary ranging from $45000 - $60000 depending on qualifications and experience. Hotel Quality. Assistance with accommodation may also be possible. Second Sparknotes. Sponsorship is available for suitable overseas applicants. Selection Criteria- Essential.
Qualifications in vet nursing or 2 years full time experience in vet nursing. Good written and verbal communications skills. Proven ability to work in a team and hotel dissertation, independently. Basic ability with common and uniform essay, vet specific software. Selection Criteria- Highly Desirable.
Unrestricted (manual) driver license and experience with 4WD. 5 years + experience in small animal/mixed practice. Experience with Rx Works. Proven ability to teach and quality, supervise less experienced staff. Proven experience as a team leader. Check out our website, www.ntvet.com.au or find us on. Sam McMahon and Alex Burleigh. Northern Territory Veterinary Services. Katherine, NT, 0851.
Mona Vale Vet Hospital, Northern Beaches, Sydney (posted 27th September) Experienced Part Time Receptionist / Concierge. “I will not let you fall. I will hold you up high. As I stand on on discipline in student life a ball. With a book in one hand, And a cup on hotel quality dissertation my hat! €¦..But that is not ALL I can do!”
Dr Seuss. Do you thrive on the logistics of on discipline keeping a number of balls in the air at once? Are you experienced as a concierge/receptionist? Do you want to work in the animal care industry alongside a lovely family of workmates, liasing with people and their companion animals? Are you drawn to the idea of a physically active role where every day is new and varied?
Would you like to hotel service dissertation, work in uniform beautiful Mona Vale, on Sydney’s sunny Northern Beaches? Then what are you waiting for? We would love you to contact us - email Dr Al Moran, email@example.com. This role, averaging 20 hours per hotel service quality, week, with flexibility to increase hours during staff holiday times, might be just the one for you. Remuneration is above award. Applications close end of October. Greencross Vets North Ringwood , North-East Melbourne, VIC (posted 27th September) Full Time Practice Manager. Full Time Practice Manager.
North Ringwood, VIC. Over nineteen hundred veterinarians and vet nurses across Australia have chosen a career with Greencross Vets. Our vets and vet nurses benefit from the resources that the largest veterinary group in Australia provides including an industry leading education program, business support for better work/life balance and career opportunities throughout the 135 plus veterinary related businesses in the Greencross Vets family. At Greencross Vets your passion for pets is exemplified by practicing the highest standards of care. We invite you to watchmen essays, join Greencross Vets for a rewarding and fulfilling career. The primary responsibilities of this position include: Managing the day to day operations of our clinic and ensuring that the hotel dissertation, Greencross values are adhered to Leading our team and communicating with a confident and positive attitude Ensuring that set clinic KPI’s are met each month Driving our business forward through creating and implementing local marketing initiatives Delivering outstanding service and care to all patients and owners Undertaking general nursing tasks, including pre-and post-operative care, animal pathology and emergency and critical care. The ideal candidate will possess the following: Previous experience as a Vet Nurse (essential) Proven experience in team management with strong leadership and not wear, team building skills The ability to provide coaching and to hotel quality, build a positive culture in should not wear uniform essay your team Experience with RX works preferred but not essential Strong communication skills High emotional intelligence Exceptional organisation and strategic planning skills.
An industry leading salary (commensurate with experience) Commitment to your career development through access to continued education, including an internal CE Veterinary program, ongoing mentorship and regular performance reviews Access to a support network of like-minded professionals An interesting and varied role. If this position could be everything that you are looking for, and you would like to become part of our highly motivated and successful Greencross team, please send your application outlining your interest suitability and including a resume to: Gladesville Veterinary Hospital , North-West Sydney, NSW (posted 26th September) Part Time Receptionist. Gladesville Veterinary Hospital is a large, A-class, small animal veterinary practice located on Victoria Road in Gladesville. Dissertation. We have a dedicated team of 8 vets, 8 nurses, 5 receptionists and lots of support staff who provide best practice care and treatment to video controversy essay, pets from all over Sydney. Although we are a large hospital, our ethos focuses on quality dissertation maintaining a friendly, €˜family€™ atmosphere where our clients can bring their pets to be treated by people they know and trust. Watchmen Essays. We are currently looking for a friendly, hard-working, animal loving person who would like to become part of our family as a part time receptionist, working 25-30 hours per dissertation, week. The shifts vary but will be between the hours of your 7.30am and 8.15pm during the hotel service, week, and 7.30am and 5.00pm on weekends. Flexibility to on discipline life, cover other shifts as needed will be viewed very favourably. The essential attributes we are looking for dissertation, are: Ability to work well and multitask under pressure in a high-volume, busy work environment.
Excellent general computer literacy, including proficiency in video games essay sending emails, scanning and saving documents, Microsoft Word and basic Microsoft Excel (previous experience using RxWorks is highly desirable, though not essential). A keen desire to service quality dissertation, learn and deliver an excellent standard of customer service at all times. Calm, professional phone manner. Excellent general numeracy and literacy skills. Excellent communication and organisational skills. A genuine love for animals and their people! Some experience working in a vet hospital as a nurse or receptionist will be regarded favourably, however full training will be provided for the right candidate. Please email a resume and watchmen essays, cover letter to dissertation, Laura (Practice Manager): firstname.lastname@example.org.
North Shore Veterinary Specialist Centre , Crows Nest, NSW (posted 26th September) Full Time Administrator/Manager. Veterinary Hospital Administrator/General and Emergency Services Manager Full Time. North Shore Veterinary Hospital and Veterinary Specialist Centre is looking for a new hospital administrator to oversee the daily operation of our busy general practice and Emergency Critical Services. The position will report directly to the General Manager, will work in watchmen essays alongside the clinical team and office manager to facilitate efficient operations of the hospital floor and administration. It is an exciting time to service quality, be part of the hospital team as it goes through a period of tremendous growth- we will be relocating to should not wear uniform essay, a larger facility to support our expansion in€¦. NSVH VSC is located on the lower North Shore of Sydney and hotel quality, has been operating since 1935. It has a heritage of should not wear providing state of the art veterinary care for our patients.
We are a customer focused practice striving to provide the best care for service quality dissertation, our clients and their pets. Video Controversy. It has CT, digital dental and standard radiology, complete in-house laboratory, C-arm. The hospital has a general practice, Medical and Surgical referral service, Visiting specialist in quality dissertation imaging, ophthalmology and Exotic animal medicine. We require an experienced manager with a nursing background to motivate, lead and organise the veterinary team to exceed client expectations, deliver specialised and high quality veterinary care and excel the business throughout this transitionary growth period and beyond. The successful applicant will require:
Certificate Iv or above in Veterinary nursing or above. Diploma or Certificate in practice administration. Proven and describe your bedroom essay, excellent people management skills, having managed a nursing team of service 5 or more. Excellent time management skills. Strive to provide outstanding patient care. Ability to provide clinical and organisation leadership. A capable mentor that supports clinical staff wellbeing. The successful applicant will receive.
A competitive salary above award. Continuing education/training can be developed around the successful individual. Career progression and development within a world class, reputable facility with support from the General Manager. Access to a wider veterinary community, resources and development with VetPartners? Please send all CV to the General Manager, Dr Peter Chitty, email@example.com.
Animal Emergency Centre Hallam, Melbourne VIC (posted 25th September) Part Time or Casual Receptionist. Part Time or Casual Receptionist. AEC Hallam is a purpose built, first class facility with up to date equipment and of morals second essay, a dedicated team of hotel quality dissertation vets, nurses and receptionists guided by our Fellow in essay crimes Emergency and Critical Care practicing exceptionally high standards of patient care. They are knowledgeable, approachable and a highly supportive team. We are currently seeking a Part Time or Casual Receptionist to join our dynamic and motivated team. The successful applicant would be required to work various rotational shifts on hotel service dissertation the AEC roster, which will include evenings, overnights, weekends and public holidays, however this role will see you working predominantly weekend and evening shifts. An interesting and varied role as well as a dynamic, fast paced, rewarding and supportive team environment; Commitment to you career development through access to continued education, ongoing mentorship and regular performance reviews; Access to a support network of watchmen essays like-minded professionals; A challenging, fast paced rewarding environment. The primary responsibilities of this position include:
Delivering outstanding client care and customer service to all patients and hotel quality dissertation, owners; Handling client enquiries professionally in person, by in student life, email and over service quality dissertation, the phone; Administration duties and associated tasks; Participating as an enthusiastic team member with a positive ‘go getter’ attitude. The ideal candidate will have the following qualities and expertise: Previous experience working as a Receptionist is a must; Experience working in the Veterinary Industry (preferred but not essential); Excellent phone manner customer service skills; Exceptional organisational and communication skills, with ability to communicate effectively with all personality types; Ability to genealogy of morals second essay sparknotes, work well within an exciting and vibrant team environment. If you would like to become part of the dynamic AEC Hallam team, please send your application, including a cover letter and resume, outlining your suitability against the above mentioned criteria to: Reception Team Leader.
Yarra Ranges Animal Hospital , Yarra Valley (posted 25th September) Veterinary Practice Manager. Veterinary Practice Manager. About the service dissertation, business and controversy essay, the role. Yarra Ranges Animal Hospital is an independently owned mixed veterinary practice that has serviced the pets and farm animals of the dissertation, Yarra Valley for over 30 years. Watchmen Essays. We have a state-of-the-art hospital in hotel service dissertation Lilydale and a branch clinic in Yarra Glen and our 4 vets are supported by a wonderful team of nurses and student should not wear uniform essay, reception staff. We pride ourselves on hotel service quality dissertation practicing high level veterinary medicine and surgery and surpassing our clients' expectations with outstanding customer service. Essay Crimes. Our very experienced Practice Manager is retiring and hotel, we are seeking to replace her with the right person to essay crimes, drive the service quality, growth of essay crimes our practice in service the years to describe your, come. We are looking for a self-motivated and experienced Practice Manager to lead our entire team in co-operation with the practice owners. The right applicant must be highly proficient in verbal and written English, have a proven track record in leadership, strong IT knowledge and most importantly, the imagination to steer our practice in to the future. Previous management and business experience is mandatory and hotel quality dissertation, experience in Veterinary, Medical or Dental practice management would be highly regarded.
Job tasks and responsibilities. The main responsibilities of this position include: Human resource management Staff training and essay, continuing education Inventory control Office administration Hospital policy design and implementation Strategic planning and marketing Monitoring KPIs and tracking practice performance. In exchange for your efforts we offer a professional and service quality, tight-knit team environment where your input will be sought and valued, flexibility around work days and hours and the opportunity to grow the role in line with business expansion. You will have the opportunity to influence team and practice success and play a key role in nietzsche genealogy of morals essay sparknotes promoting the growth of a highly regarded local business. You must have management experience and the right applicant will be highly experienced in small business administration. If you fit the dissertation, bill, please email your application and resume to firstname.lastname@example.org addressed to student should uniform, Dr Ben Fell.
Normanhurst Vet Practice, Hills District, NSW (posted 25th September) Casual Experienced Receptionist / Vet Nurse. We are a busy small animal practice in Sydney’s northern suburbs. We have an opportunity for service dissertation, an enthusiastic nurse to student should uniform, join our team. We have a wide and interesting caseload where there is the opportunity to learn from a lot of different cases. The position is a mix of nursing and reception duties. The nurse we are searching for would ideally have the following attributes: Experience in surgical and medical nursing is hotel dissertation, preferred. Fully Cert IV qualified is not essential provided you have worked previously in a clinic. Games Essay. Teamwork - we have a great work atmosphere and are looking for the right person to complement our team. Service Quality Dissertation. Excellent communication skills - to team members and to our clients.
Client Care €“ we pride ourselves on being a community practice, we are not owned by describe view, a corporation. Our clients come to us for the great care and service we provide. Hotel Service Quality. Self motivated mature minded €“ You must have good time management skills and initiative to get through the work required. This is a casual time position, 3-5 days per week, with rostered weekends (eg 1 in nietzsche genealogy of morals second essay sparknotes 3) and a flexible roster. Reception work is involved. Lots of interesting and varied cases with no 2 days ever the same. We provide a regular house call service. Nurses are very involved in all aspects of nursing, including placing catheters, taking blood performing in house pathology and service quality, cytology, nurse consults and much more Our vets are always happy to teach and help you learn on the job.
We have a very high standard of care that we expect every team member to essay, adhere to. If you would like to know more information please contact Michele on 02 9489 6000. Western Australian Vet Emergency Specialty , Success WA (posted 20th September) Casual After Hours Vet Nurse Receptionist. Are you thinking about joining the dark side? WAVES is hotel service dissertation, looking for an enthusiastic, energetic, dedicated nurse who loves customer service and wants to be a Emergency and Critical Care afterhours receptionist.
Veterinary medical knowledge is describe your bedroom window essay, essential for this position. The successful applicant must be a qualified nurse and have at least two years experience in the veterinary industry. Hotel Service Quality. Previous experience as a referral hospital receptionist and with Cornerstone would be a big advantage; however your professional approach is more important to us. You will be the first and last person to meet and speak to clients at our hospital so it is essay crimes, essential that you make them feel comfortable and deal with them in quality an efficient, professional and not wear essay, compassionate manner. You must be able to confidently give informative and supportive advice to hotel service quality, clients and referring veterinarians who are calling in watchmen essays regards to emergencies. You must be able confidently and calmly triage patients as they arrive and liaise with the rest of the emergency team in a fast and efficient manner. Hotel Quality. You must be able to multitask and consistently provide high quality customer service in a sometimes hectic environment with high attention to detail. This is a casual position and student essay, the ideal candidate would be available to work Saturdays and over the Christmas period. They must also have the ability to quality dissertation, work on a flexible roster between the hours of 6pm and midnight Monday to Friday, as well as some weekend and public holiday shifts. Please only apply if you are able to on discipline in student life, commit to hotel quality, this position long term and are happy to work nights. If you have boundless energy, a positive outlook, work best under pressure and think fast then you may be the person we are looking for.
To find out nietzsche genealogy of morals second about our recruitment process and how to apply email Emma at email@example.com. Mosman Veterinary Hospital, North Shore Sydney (posted 20th September) Full Time Practice Manager Maternity Cover. Practice Manager Position. Mosman Veterinary Hospital, Sydney, NSW. Mosman Veterinary Hospital is a Small Animal Hospital located in service quality the prestigious suburb of Mosman on Sydney’s lower North Shore. With ten full-time staff and sixteen part-time we have a great team of veterinarians, receptionists, nurses, groomers and animal attendants. We are a strongly customer focused hospital and should uniform essay, we operate to a very high standard of care. All of our vets have further qualifications and hotel service, special interests with upskilling encouraged. We perform a wide range of medical and surgical procedures in-house including some orthopaedic work, and have a nurse on site 24 hrs a day. We are looking for an enthusiastic, driven, go-getter of a Practice Manager to video, join our team and hotel service quality, help us drive the watchmen essays, clinic onwards to hotel service quality, even greater things.
As a senior role this position will best suit someone with significant experience in the veterinary industry or managerial qualifications. The role will include a range of essay on discipline in student duties, including: Leading our team and service dissertation, communicating with a confident and essay life, positive attitude. Managing financials such as clinic budgets and goals, rebate schemes, and banking. Dissertation. Creating and implementing new and exciting marketing strategies in describe view your clinic. Engaging our clients with social media and local media usage. Quality. Updating and maintaining the second essay sparknotes, clinic website. Inventory control and stock management. Service Dissertation. Human resources tasks such as recruitment, training and performance reviews.
Assisting with staff wages and clinic bookwork. We know that a great manager can really motivate and describe view your window, energise a veterinary practice and hotel dissertation, so the following skills will be essential for this role: Outstanding customer service skills and a genuine enthusiasm for working with people. Nietzsche Essay Sparknotes. Exceptional time management and organisational skills. A can-do go-getter attitude, who loves motivating a team. Strong leadership and interpersonal skills. Attention to detail. A passion for problem solving Experience with RX works, Microsoft word and Excel.
The ability to multitask (and enjoy working on several things at a time).. A generous salary package (commensurate with experience) applies to the position. Hotel Service. More information about our hospital can be found on our website at www.mosmanvet.com.au. We encourage veterinarians and watchmen essays, business managers to apply. This is a 12 month maternity leave position with the potential to extend to service dissertation, longer. The position will begin December 2017/January 2018. Applications (including CV) should be directed to Mrs Anita Spowart (Practice Manager) at firstname.lastname@example.org. Peninsula Vet Care Rosebud , Mornington Peninsula (posted 18th September) Full Time Nurse Team Leader. Veterinary Nurse Team Leader Required.
Peninsula Vet Care is essay crimes, a group of service dissertation five veterinary hospitals on the Mornington Peninsula. We pride ourselves on having a great team and focused environment that strives to provide best practice care for all of your window our patients, and at the same time as exceptional customer service to our clients. We are currently looking for a full time nursing team leader to join our team at the Rosebud Hospital. This role requires an experienced hands on nurse that also has a passion for people and seeing the team they lead excel. Working closely with the nursing manager to ensure policies, procedures, client/patient experience and hotel service quality, general clinic communication is at student should essay, the highest level possible. Must have a certificate IV in Veterinary Nursing.
A minimum of 3 years experience required in service both surgery and reception. A broad range of clinical nursing skills. Strong problem solving and organisational skills. Effective interpersonal and communication skills. Must have an your window essay, interest in further education. Prior experience in team management not a necessity, although highly regarded. Please send your application and resume to email@example.com or call Jenna on 5986 2254 if have any questions about the position. Greencross Vets Sandringham, South-East Melbourne, VIC (posted 15th September) Full Time Practice Manager.
Full Time Practice Manager. Over nineteen hundred veterinarians and vet nurses across Australia have chosen a career with Greencross Vets. Our vets and vet nurses benefit from the resources that the largest veterinary group in service quality Australia provides including an industry leading education program, business support for watchmen essays, better work/life balance and career opportunities throughout the 135 plus veterinary related businesses in the Greencross Vets family. At Greencross Vets your passion for pets is exemplified by service dissertation, practicing the highest standards of care. We invite you to join Greencross Vets for a rewarding and fulfilling career. The primary responsibilities of student not wear uniform this position include:
Managing the day to day operations of hotel quality our clinic and watchmen essays, ensuring that the hotel quality dissertation, Greencross values are adhered to Leading our team and communicating with a confident and positive attitude Ensuring that set clinic KPI’s are met each month Driving our business forward through creating and video games controversy essay, implementing local marketing initiatives Delivering outstanding service and care to all patients and owners ]Undertaking general nursing tasks, including pre-and post-operative care, animal pathology and emergency and critical care. The ideal candidate will possess the following: Previous experience as a Vet Nurse (essential) Proven experience in team management with strong leadership and team building skills The ability to provide coaching and to build a positive culture in your team Experience with RX works preferred but not essential Strong communication skills High emotional intelligence Exceptional organisation and hotel service quality dissertation, strategic planning skills. An industry leading salary (commensurate with experience) Commitment to your career development through access to continued education, including an internal CE Veterinary program, ongoing mentorship and regular performance reviews Access to a support network of like-minded professionals An interesting and varied role. If this position could be everything that you are looking for, and you would like to become part of violence video games our highly motivated and successful Greencross team, please send your application outlining your interest suitability and including a resume to: St George Animal Hospital, Carlton, Sydney (posted 14th September) Part Time Receptionist. Vet Receptionist - Part Time.
We are looking for a Receptionist with at least 3+ years experience in the Veterinary Industry to be the hotel service, “welcoming face” of our practice. Excellent knowledge of all general veterinary advice is student uniform, essential. You would be responsible for hotel, the front area of the Hospital including reception and consult rooms and be able to manage an student should uniform, easy flow to our consult rooms making our client’s visit as pleasant as can possibly be. We strive to give top quality veterinary care to our patients and dissertation, keep our clients fully informed whilst providing a friendly, professional atmosphere. Hours are Monday to nietzsche genealogy of morals second sparknotes, Friday 2.00pm €“ 8.00pm. Excellent client liaison Pleasant telephone manner Cheerful personality and a sense of hotel service dissertation humour Ability to perform to a high standard under pressure Competent animal handling skills Neat appearance Exceptional organization Capable of essay on discipline giving accurate and helpful advice to clients. Manage a busy waiting room in a professional manner Liaise with Vets and Vet Nurses Book appointments on computer programme Handle payments and balance end of day Keep tidy and presentable reception and consult room Administration duties. We look forward to hearing from you; please send covering letter and resume to firstname.lastname@example.org. Seaforth Veterinary Hospital, Sydney's Northern Beaches (posted 13th September) Part Time Receptionist. Seaforth Veterinary Hospital,
Part Time Veterinary Receptionist. Seaforth Veterinary Hospital has been open on Sydney's beautiful northern beaches for more than 30 years. We are a busy hospital offering routine and service quality, preventative care as well as diagnostic facilities including in-house surgery and view bedroom window essay, pathology, digital x-ray and modern dental equipment. An exciting opportunity is now available for a part time receptionist in our hospital. The shifts we are looking to service quality, fill are 7.30am-1.30pm Monday 1.30pm-7.30pm Wednesday we are also interested in someone who is able to work casually to games controversy, cover shifts as they arise due to hotel quality, holidays and illness. Your responsibilities will include but not be limited to: delivering outstanding client care and customer service to all clients and their pets answering multiple telephone lines and email queries scheduling appointments and procedures for multiple veterinarians processing of describe your bedroom essay accounts, cash handling and hotel service quality dissertation, balancing of the till product sales and advice for over the counter products administration duties and associated tasks maintaining, cleaning and stocking the reception and essay on discipline, merchandise area.
The person we would like to join our team will: have previous experience in either a veterinary or medical reception role or veterinary nursing have an hotel quality dissertation, eye for detail, take pride in their work and exhibit common sense and initiative have excellent communication skills and work well under pressure enjoy working as part of essay crimes a team. If this sounds like you and hotel quality dissertation, you love a busy and productive work environment, please send your application and resume to email@example.com or attention to Maria at 55 Ethel Street, Seaforth 2092. Greencross Vets Carrara , Gold Coast, QLD (posted 12th September) Full Time Practice Manager. Full Time Practice Manager.
Over nineteen hundred veterinarians and vet nurses across Australia have chosen a career with Greencross Vets. Our vets and vet nurses benefit from the resources that the largest veterinary group in Australia provides including an industry leading education program, business support for better work/life balance and violence controversy essay, career opportunities throughout the 135 plus veterinary related businesses in the Greencross Vets family. At Greencross Vets your passion for hotel quality, pets is exemplified by practicing the highest standards of should not wear uniform essay care. Hotel Quality Dissertation. We invite you to join Greencross Vets for a rewarding and in student, fulfilling career. The primary responsibilities of this position include:
Managing the day to hotel, day operations of our clinic and ensuring that the of morals second essay sparknotes, Greencross values are adhered to Leading our team and communicating with a confident and positive attitude Ensuring that set clinic KPI’s are met each month Driving our business forward through creating and implementing local marketing initiatives Delivering outstanding service and service dissertation, care to all patients and owners Undertaking general nursing tasks, including pre-and post-operative care, animal pathology and watchmen essays, emergency and hotel service dissertation, critical care. The ideal candidate will possess the following: Previous experience as a Vet Nurse (essential) Proven experience in essay crimes team management with strong leadership and team building skills The ability to provide coaching and to build a positive culture in hotel your team Experience with RX works preferred but not essential Strong communication skills High emotional intelligence Exceptional organisation and strategic planning skills. An industry leading salary (commensurate with experience) Commitment to your career development through access to continued education, including an internal CE Veterinary program, ongoing mentorship and watchmen essays, regular performance reviews Access to a support network of like-minded professionals An interesting and varied role. If this position could be everything that you are looking for, and you would like to become part of hotel our highly motivated and should uniform, successful Greencross team, please send your application outlining your interest suitability and including a resume to: Bakers Hill Veterinary Hospital , East of Perth, WA (posted 12th September) Full or Part Time Practice Manager/Head Vet Nurse. Job Title: Head Nurse/Practice Manager. Location: Bakers Hill, Western Australia.
Type of dissertation Work: Mixed Practice. Hours: Full Time (Part Time negotiable) After Hours: None. Salary: Generous Above Award Rate. An opportunity has arisen for a competent, fully qualified, registered Veterinary Nurse who is confident in all areas of second essay surgical nursing, anaesthesia and hotel, patient care. Genealogy Essay Sparknotes. We are a one vet, two nurse country practice with a commitment to treating every patient and client with compassion, providing excellence in everything we do. We specialise in animal dentistry and pride ourselves in hotel service dissertation the level of essay life anaesthetic care that we provide our patients. Bakers Hill Veterinary Hospital is located just a short commute from Midland in the beautiful Avon Valley. There is service quality dissertation, a great community spirit here, both within the town and the practice, and violence games controversy, the clients are lovely.
If you like that family feeling about service dissertation your work place, then this may be the job for you. The successful candidate will get to be part of something that can be extremely rewarding and fulfilling. This is a job where no two days are the same and essay crimes, where you will be continually learning and developing yourself in quality dissertation a role that is challenging, diverse and where you will have great autonomy. We are looking for someone who has at least four years nursing experience and has either worked in a senior position or has the capabilities to step up in to one. Essay Crimes. We are a close knit team and hotel service, are looking for someone with exceptional communication and people skills, who can work well as part of a team, as well as being self motivated. You will have excellent practical nursing skills and a broad knowledge of genealogy sparknotes both large and small animal husbandry. An ability to multitask is essential.
You will have great problem solving skills and be adaptable to any situation as it arises. Hotel Service Quality. You will also have excellent time management skills and be meticulous in everything you do. You will need to be comfortable working with computers, as well as all aspects of clinic management or have a keen interest in violence video games controversy essay becoming a practice manager. Working hours are Monday to quality, Friday 8.00am to 5.00pm with no requirement to watchmen essays, work Saturdays at present. Continuing personal development is offered after the probation period and service quality, sponsorship will be considered for exceptional candidates. If you feel you are the essay on discipline in student life, right candidate for hotel, this position and would relish the opportunity to genealogy of morals essay, work in an often fast paced environment with a lot of responsibility in hotel service quality dissertation a hands on role please send your covering letter and C.V. to firstname.lastname@example.org. Casula Veterinary Hospital, Sth Western Sydney (posted 12th September) Casual Experienced Vet Nurse / Receptionist. Casula Veterinary Hospital is a busy A class small animal practice.
We provide a wide range of services including digital radiography (including PennHip), specialist ultrasound, in-house pathology, soft tissue and essay crimes, orthopaedic surgerie. We are located in south western Sydney, a few minutes from the Hume Hwy exit on M5. We are looking for an experienced casual veterinary nurse. We are looking for service quality dissertation, an enthusiastic team member who has great customer service skills, the ability to violence essay, work as part of a team and independently. Customer service and reception duties Surgical nursing and anaesthetic monitoring Laboratory tests Patient care Radiology IV fluid set up Post op monitoring Clinic hygiene and maintenance. Certificate IV in Veterinary Nursing with a minimum of 3 years experience Exceptional animal and client care standards Excellent customer service and communication skills Computer skills (preferably experience with Vetlink SQL) Punctual and hotel service, reliable Approachable friendly with a positive attitude Own transport Punctual and reliable Strong work ethics. Ability to work a roster that may involve day, evening, weekend and public holiday shifts at both our Casula and Liverpool clinics. Please visit our website to learn more about us. www.veterinaryhospital.com.au. To apply, please email your resume to Amy: Amy.email@example.com or call on 02 9602 9863.
Ivanhoe East Veterinary Hospital , North-East Melbourne, VIC (posted 8th September) Senior Vet Nurse. EXPERIENCED VETERINARY NURSE POSITION INNER NORTH EAST MELBOURNE. Alas our senior nurse who has been with us since we opened 4 years ago is on discipline, tired of hotel quality Melbourne weather and heading up north to warmer pastures! Hence we need an experienced nurse to work a 36 hour week to look after our lovely animals and clients and to help run the essay crimes, clinic! Starting date is late December but prior training will be required. We are looking for service dissertation, a minimum of 2 years nursing experience and are looking for second essay sparknotes, dedication, determination and willingness to hotel quality, learn! The Ivanhoe East Vet Hospital is a small but very busy boutique vet hospital. Describe Your Bedroom. We do all things including emergency, surgery, exotics, medicine, wildlife and we have a small cattery. We are a well-equipped clinic with in house pathology, digital radiography, ultrasound, complete dental suit, endoscopy etc. We have a friendly and caring working environment and we pride ourselves on quality dissertation our level professional service and student not wear uniform essay, quality of veterinary care provided to owned, rescue and hotel service dissertation, wildlife patients.
Applicants must be able to work as a team, have excellent customer service and organisational skills, be highly motivated, have initiative and focus on providing a high standard of care for our patients. Please email resumes and cover letter to violence games, Rob Gropel at firstname.lastname@example.org. Pet Universe , Adelaide, SA (posted 31st August) Full Time Client Relations Officer. Join Our Multi-Award Winning Team as a Client Relations Officer (FT) Pet Universe is hotel, a progressive, high quality, small animal veterinary practice located 10 minutes from Adelaide’s CBD. With many years of watchmen essays veterinary experience, we have become an quality, employer and practice of choice and Telstra Small Business Awards SA 2013 2015 Finalists. We were the recipients of the Australian Veterinary Associations coveted Small Animal Practice of Excellence in 2015. Do you have excellent communication skills enjoy people? Can you multi-task, stay cheerful under pressure workday time, evening weekend hours? Can you apply your previous customer service skills in video games hospitality or other industries to a professional medical setting where sales business blend discretely with empathy care?
What Does The Role Entail? Becoming the professional, friendly, caring efficient “Face of the Practice” Make bookings, check that appropriate revisit appointments are made Educate sell cross-sell our services to our clients Feedback on customers’ reactions comments about service standards of care. Be able achieve or exceed customer satisfaction and sales KPIs Manage coordinate the dissertation, smooth progression from arrival to essay on discipline life, departure of each practice visitor The ability to deal with emotional or difficult clients Be adept at at maintaining good communications with the team that are consulting/operating/grooming etc. about the state of play in hotel quality dissertation the front of watchmen essays house areas i.e. waiting clients, incomplete discharges, incoming emergencies etc. Complete paperwork and cleaning the reception area, consults rooms staff amenities. Dissertation. Be knowledgeable about the violence games, different health conditions, medications, diets retails items too.
All of our team share a few things in common €“ namely a real passion for their work, a great attitude a great work ethic that not only includes working hard but also working as a team. Hotel Service Dissertation. They all come to work not because they have to but because they want to because they want to work at Pet Universe. What Does Pet Universe Stand For? We believe in offering the very best healthcare in an innovative, professional, caring, enjoyable, consistent and value-for-money way. Student Should Essay. Our standard consults are 20 minutes long or 30 minutes for new clients. And that’s why we have a large number of service quality dissertation qualified veterinary nurses and dedicated Client Relations team members.
We were the nietzsche genealogy second essay sparknotes, first Practice in quality Adelaide to offer Kitten Kindy, one of the few to offer acupuncture€“ and the first hospital to offer Medivets’ Stem Cell Therapy: we have now performed over 30 stem cell treatments on cats and dogs, and the results are outstanding. And lastly, that’s why we have some really great clients that want to do the essay, best by their pets and say “Yes” to our treatment recommendations. We are 5-10 minutes northeast from Adelaide’s CBD with all the benefits of living in Adelaide, and 20-25 minutes from the beaches and Barossa Valley. Locally, there are a great variety of restaurants and hotel service dissertation, cafes, new cinemas and facilities including fantastic public and private schools nearby. What Experience Talents Do I Need To Apply? Track record in a customer service role with good time management. Veterinary nursing or pet care training or knowledge desirable Good standard of spoken written English computer literate. Essay. A minimum of 1-2 years of service industry experience Business / commercial understanding of the sales process Commercial/pragmatic approach to problem solving. Good time management, prioritisation self-motivations skills Good communicator team player that can develop maintain a good rapport with people fast. Must love animals. And most important a positive attitude.
Please forward your C.V. to hotel, email@example.com. All applications will be dealt with in strictest confidence. Greencross Vets Strathfield , Sydney, NSW (posted 30th August) Part Time Practice Manager. Part Time Practice Manager. Over nineteen hundred veterinarians and student not wear essay, vet nurses across Australia have chosen a career with Greencross Vets. Our vets and hotel service quality, vet nurses benefit from the resources that the largest veterinary group in Australia provides including an industry leading education program, business support for watchmen essays, better work/life balance and career opportunities throughout the 135 plus veterinary related businesses in the Greencross Vets family. At Greencross Vets your passion for service, pets is exemplified by on discipline in student, practicing the highest standards of care.
We invite you to join Greencross Vets for a rewarding and fulfilling career. The primary responsibilities of quality this position include: Managing the should uniform, day to day operations of our clinic and ensuring that the hotel quality dissertation, Greencross values are adhered to watchmen essays, Leading our team and communicating with a confident and positive attitude Ensuring that set clinic KPI’s are met each month Driving our business forward through creating and implementing local marketing initiatives Delivering outstanding service and care to all patients and owners Undertaking general nursing tasks, including pre-and post-operative care, animal pathology emergency critical care. The ideal candidate will possess the following: Previous experience as a Vet Nurse (essential) Proven experience in service quality dissertation team management with strong leadership and team building skills The ability to provide coaching and to build a positive culture in watchmen essays your team Experience with RX works preferred but not essential Strong communication skills High emotional intelligence Exceptional organisation and strategic planning skills. An industry leading salary (commensurate with experience) Commitment to your career development through access to continued education, including an internal CE Veterinary program, ongoing mentorship and regular performance reviews Access to service quality, a support network of like-minded professionals An interesting and varied role.
If this position could be everything that you are looking for, and you would like to become part of our highly motivated and successful Greencross team, please send your application outlining your interest suitability and watchmen essays, including a resume to: Greencross Vets Roseville Sydney, NSW (posted 30th August) Full Time Practice Manager. Full Time Practice Manager. Over nineteen hundred veterinarians and vet nurses across Australia have chosen a career with Greencross Vets. Our vets and quality dissertation, vet nurses benefit from the essay crimes, resources that the largest veterinary group in Australia provides including an industry leading education program, business support for better work/life balance and career opportunities throughout the hotel service quality dissertation, 135 plus veterinary related businesses in the Greencross Vets family. At Greencross Vets your passion for pets is genealogy, exemplified by practicing the highest standards of care. We invite you to join Greencross Vets for service quality, a rewarding and student essay, fulfilling career. The primary responsibilities of this position include:
Managing the hotel service dissertation, day to watchmen essays, day operations of our clinic and ensuring that the Greencross values are adhered to Leading our team and hotel, demonstrating a commitment to developing a high standard care in should uniform clinic Ensuring that set clinic KPI’s are met each month Driving our business forward through creating and hotel service quality, implementing local marketing initiatives Delivering outstanding service and care to all patients and owners Undertaking general nursing tasks, including pre-and post-operative care, animal pathology and ECC. The ideal candidate will possess the following: Previous experience as a Vet Nurse (essential) Proven experience in student should uniform essay team management with strong leadership and team building skills The ability to provide coaching and to build a positive culture in your team Experience with RX works preferred but not essential Excellent Interpersonal and communication skills High emotional intelligence Excellent attention to detail Exceptional organisation and strategic planning skills. An industry leading salary (commensurate with experience) Commitment to your career development through access to continued education, including an internal CE Veterinary program, ongoing mentorship and regular performance reviews Access to a support network of like-minded professionals An interesting and quality, varied role. If this position could be everything that you are looking for, and you would like to become part of essay crimes our highly motivated and hotel quality dissertation, successful Greencross team, please send your application outlining your interest suitability and including a resume to: Lort Smith Animal Hospital, North Melbourne, VIC (posted 24th August) Customer Services / Reception. Customer Services Officer. Shifts available Monday - Friday. Lort Smith’s mission is to improve the genealogy of morals second essay sparknotes, health and happiness of animals and the people who care for them.
We do this via three very important streams of hotel quality work; in our hospital by providing exceptional veterinary care and preserving the human-animal bond irrespective of a person’s circumstance; in our adoption centre by providing sanctuary, rehabilitation, welfare and a new home for animals; and through our community outreach programs by promoting responsible pet ownership and nurturing the in student, human-animal bond. To learn more about service Lort Smith go to: www.lortsmith.com. Our Customer Services Officers contribute to the quality care for animals, promote responsible pet ownership, foster awareness of animals and benefits they bring by delivering our vision, mission and values of Lort Smith. Nietzsche Genealogy Of Morals. This role is responsible for service quality, delivering an exceptional customer experience, growth and reputation of Lort Smith through building rapport, identifying customer needs and managing customer concerns and will deliver peace of mind. Reporting to the Customer Services Supervisor, you will be the first point of contact for our clients and responsible for maintaining a professional customer service experience via our call centre and Reception area. To be successful in your application, you must be able to demonstrate: A minimum of two years’ experience in customer service within a veterinary environment Ability to work in a dynamic customer service environment, with strong phone / contact centre skills and face to face interaction Commitment to the delivery of outstanding customer service An understanding and essay crimes, empathy for hotel quality, the important role animals play in people’s lives Developed negotiation skills and ability to communicate effectively with people in distress Strong organisational skills and essay life, the ability to prioritise and problem solve A positive and hotel service quality dissertation, resilient attitude is essential Be a team player and on discipline, lead by example Outstanding communication and interpersonal skills Well developed computer skills. We are looking to fill this vacancy as soon as possible so if you meet the requirements for hotel service dissertation, the role listed above, please forward your current resume and application letter to firstname.lastname@example.org.
For further information, please contact Human Resources on (03) 9321 7232. Sandown Veterinary Clinic , Springvale, VIC (posted 22nd August) Full Time Receptionist/Nurse. An exciting opportunity currently exists for an experienced veterinary nurse to join our busy practice. We are seeking an enthusiastic and energetic person to take on this role for immediate start. Responsibilities will include reception and nurse duties: Providing outstanding customer service.
Assisting with phone calls and describe view window essay, clients questions. Running two busy, diverse receptions and two phone lines. Daily bookings and transactions Hospital care, surgery and all standard veterinary nursing duties. Blood sampling, catheterisation and lab work. Nurse consults, including nutritional, dental and seniors clinics. Four x 9 hour shift per week starting at hotel dissertation, either 9am or 10am. 1 in 4 weekends which involves working Saturday 8am €“ 1pm and Sunday mornings. 2 €“ 3 public holidays per year.
Nurse duties from 9am €“ 2pm. Reception duties from 2pm til end of describe view bedroom window essay shift. The successful applicant will fit the following criteria: Minimum 1 year of nursing experience in a small animal practice covering all facets of nursing and reception work. Flexible: being able to work a roster which will involve days, evenings, weekends and quality dissertation, public holiday shifts. A commitment and passion for high level patient care. A hard working and a hands-on approach to nietzsche genealogy second essay, your work.
Effective time management and hotel service dissertation, organisational skills. The ability to work as both part of a team and independently. Love of lots of chocolate and sweets!! Sandown Veterinary Clinic has had a world-leading reputation and is one of Australia€™s premier centres for the provision of essay in student life treatment for service quality dissertation, racing greyhounds. As well as treating the not wear uniform essay, sports medicine side of greyhounds, we also offer one of the largest reproductive programs in Australia.
As well as catering to hotel service quality dissertation, all of the racing greyhound's needs, we also offer all manner of not wear routine medicine and surgery to domestic dogs and cats. Please forward all cover letters and resume' to: Macarthur Veterinary Group , South-West Sydney, NSW (posted 16th August) Full Time Receptionist. Macarthur Veterinary Group. Experienced Veterinary Nurse Receptionist.
Immediate Start €“ Full Time - flexible days/hours. (Bradbury €“ Campbelltown area) Macarthur Vet Group is hotel quality dissertation, a busy four clinic practice that has been in the Macarthur Region of genealogy of morals South West Sydney for more than 25 years. (Check us out at macarthurvet.com.au.) We won the 2014 Local Business of the Year and LBA Outstanding Pet Care category 13 times! We currently have a vacancy for a friendly, hard-working, animal loving person who would like to become part of our family as a full-time receptionist, working a minimum of quality dissertation 38 hours per week. The key attributes we are looking for are: Availability and flexibility to video games, work 38 hours/ week between the hours of 8.00 am and 7.00 pm, with some Saturday morning shifts Certificate IV in Veterinary Nursing and a minimum of 2 years relevant work experience Calm, professional phone manner Excellent communication and organisational skills A genuine love for service quality, animals and their people!
Ability to describe view essay, work well and multitask under pressure in a high-volume, busy work environment Ability to work independently and as part of a team Ability to hotel service, provide outstanding animal care advice Excellent general computer literacy including Microsoft Offie suite Experience using RxWorks, and scheduling appointments efficiently Cash handling skills Ability to maintain stock levels and in student, keep accurate records A keen desire to learn and deliver an excellent standard of customer service at all times. You will have completed your Cert II (minimum) in dissertation Veterinary Nursing and have at least two years experience and be willing to undertake regular continuing education, financially supported by us, of course. We offer a competitive salary, inclusive working environment and on-going training. We work hard, but we have fun too including regular social events when the video games controversy, team and their families can let their hair down. To find out how to apply, email your resume and introductory letter to Sharon at Sharon@macarthurvet.com.au or phone on 02 4627 1333. Hotel Dissertation. We look forward to hearing from you. Spearwood Vet Hospital, Hamilton Hill, WA (posted 10th August) Casual Vet Nurse / Receptionist. Veterinary Nurse required. Spearwood Veterinary Hospital is a busy small animal practice. We are long established (over 30 years) and provide compassionate and high quality veterinary care.
We are currently looking for a casual veterinary nurse who can work Saturdays and describe view your essay, occasional week days from time to time. There may be the possibility of hotel quality dissertation ongoing leave cover also. As this position will be primarily reception, we will need the successful candidate to have good product knowledge and to have excellent customer service skills. There will also be some nursing tasks, so experience in all aspects of nursing would be required. The ideal candidate will be able to meet the below criteria: Excellent communication skills Participate well in a team environment Have a positive attitude Provide outstanding customer service and violence video games essay, patient care Excellent time management and organisational skills Minimum 2 years in dissertation clinic experience Certificate IV qualification and registered with the on discipline in student, Veterinary Surgeons Board of WA. Spearwood Veterinary Hospital is computerised with RX works software and equipped with digital x-ray, Idexx Catalyst, Gemini Infusion Pumps and ultrasonic dental scaler. Our nursing staff are encouraged to place intra-venous catheters, perform blood and other sample collections, minor dental procedures and quality, nurse consultations. Racecourse Road Veterinary Clinic , Ballina, NSW (posted 8th August) Full Time Office Manager. Office Manager €“ Full Time.
A positive, friendly, caring, supportive and generally awesome bunch of individuals who come together to make an bedroom window, epic team!! Would you like to hotel service quality, join us?? We foster a work environment that inspires trust, confidence and respect. We€™re always striving to improve who we are as individuals as well as a team €“ and, as clich©d as it may sound, above all else we LOVE what we do and enjoy coming to work each day. We take great pride in our amazing clinic €“ its€™ structures, processes and the people working to create and improve them €“ we make our own rules and that€™s why it works! Above all else we are loads of fun! An incredible position is available for someone to join our team here at Racecourse Road Vets, where team culture and student should uniform essay, cohesion are top of our priorities. Dissertation. We know that success and good results for our clients and patients can only come from a truly brilliant team €“ are you the person who could arrive on day one and make us feel like we€™ve known you for bedroom window essay, years? We are seeking someone who has a high level of service quality dissertation emotional intelligence €“ empathetic and passionate about essay solving not only our client€™s needs but those of the team. You have multiple years of experience in a nursing role but have discovered that these days your preference is spending time at the front of house, interacting with and hotel quality, catering to student should not wear uniform, the needs of clients and their beloved 4 legged companions. Building rapport comes easily to hotel service dissertation, you and describe view your bedroom window essay, you are an active and interested listener.
You are a team player who supports your team€™s efforts and has an exceptionally high service orientation. You are down to earth and approachable yet task focused. If this is you€¦.you sound AWESOME and we want you!! Finding someone who fits with the culture of our business is THE most important thing to quality, us €“ but we do have a few key requirements!! Some of your core attributes and skills are: A big picture focus with the ability to effectively co-ordinate a busy schedule without compromising on customer service. Conscientious, efficient and adept at essay crimes, workflow management. An ability to lead and hotel service, inspire a team with a passion for helping others to excel. Experience in a leadership/supervisory role is preferred. A minimum of 3 years experience in a veterinary nurse or reception role.
Outstanding communication skills with an watchmen essays, outgoing personality and a positive, €˜can-do€™ attitude to work and life in quality general! An innate understanding of what the needs of our clients and patients are €“ and not wear uniform, a dedication to make sure this is always delivered. A sound knowledge base to be able to triage effectively and respond accordingly to client enquiries. The specifics of the role will be discussed further at hotel service, the interview stage €“ we really look forward to hearing from you!! Please forward a cover letter and resume outlining your suitability for this position to essay in student, email@example.com. Drummoyne Veterinary Hospital , Inner West Sydney, NSW (posted 7th August) Full or Part Time Senior Vet Nurse. Drummoyne Veterinary Hospital in Sydney’s Inner West seeks a Senior Veterinary Nurse. (Full-time or school-hours)
Our business is suffering some growing pains - we're getting too busy for our current team but if we just add another regular nurse or vet, there won't be enough to do! So, we seek a new senior veterinary nurse to join and lead our excellent little team. Hotel Service. We want to start doing nurse consults, seminars, clinics, etc, to improve and expand our preventative health compliance, and to teach and nurture an expanded role for each of our nurses. This is a new and strategic position within the on discipline in student, business, and quality, the position is available now. Essay Crimes. We're ready - are you? You will need to be an service quality, experienced all-rounder with the capacity to teach and lead. Video Controversy. We already know how to do anaesthetics and surgery - this role is the next level up in service terms of team management, patient care and essay crimes, customer service. Minimum qualifications and experience required include.
completed Cert IV Veterinary Nursing or NZ/UK/US equivalent. minimum 5 years full-time experience in veterinary nursing and reception. a confident disposition and excellent personal presentation. experience in managing, leading and hotel quality dissertation, developing a team. Drummoyne Veterinary Hospital has a great team working in a big, bright, spacious building with lovely clients. We practice excellent veterinary medicine and surgery and have lots of gadgets; dental and digital radiology, in-house Idexx laboratory, etc. We have professional dog grooming and a strong focus on Puppy Preschool.
We are absolutely committed to video games controversy, excellent customer service. We look after our staff with excellent conditions, training and development, staff social events (non-compulsory!) and service, much more. To apply for this position, please send a covering letter and your resume to Dr Steve Anich, by email to firstname.lastname@example.org. Templestowe Veterinary Clinic , North East Melbourne (Posted 4th August), Full Time Head Surgical Nurse. Full Time Head Surgical Nurse. Templestowe Veterinary Clinic located in the beautiful SE suburbs of Melbourne, is searching for the right Head Surgical Nurse to enhance our great team. This position is a full-time position and includes 1 in 3 rotating Saturday shifts. Our clinic is seeking a bubbly, customer focused, patient focused, team focused, head surgical nurse in our busy and well-regarded vet clinic. You will have exceptional customer service, a positive outlook and be willing to learn.
You will be responsible for should not wear essay, managing out the back and work alongside management to hotel service, grow team skills. Must be confident in surgery and patient care! We pride ourselves on exceptional customer service. In Student. You would have the opportunity to advance your skills in hotel quality dissertation further education in surgery and describe bedroom window, much more. We are committed to the further education and professional development of everyone in quality dissertation our team. We place high value on student essay this as it directly allows us to perform the highest possible standards of care for hotel service quality dissertation, our patients and clients. To be considered for this position you will ideally have: Certificate IV Qualifications as a Veterinary Nurse (or equivalent) Minimum of 3 years nursing experience, ideally in a fast paced environment Experience in training less experienced team members Licence to take veterinary radiographs within the State of Victoria or the ability to get this licence Outstanding animal and client care standards Strong organisation and communication skills Well developed computer skills.
Outstanding skills in all things surgical Training less experienced team members Developing and adhering to relevant surgical protocols Driving the work flow and productivity in the surgical theatre Assisting vets with animals during examination and surgery Preparing medications Preparing animals for watchmen essays, surgery Cleaning and service quality, maintaining equipment Monitoring patients during anaesthesia Providing post-operative care Administering medications Running in-house lab tests Keeping pets comfortable and clean Discharging routine surgery patients Reception Providing outstanding customer service. Sense of urgency You’re a team player Bubbly and outgoing personality Maturity and also a sense of essay crimes humour A positive outlook and hotel, willingness to learn. We want to provide the second sparknotes, right candidate with a work-life balance to hotel, ensure you are a happy member of the team for a long time to come. To apply please quote reference #1100208 and send cover letter and resume to email@example.com. Kookaburra Veterinary Employment reserves the right to violence games controversy, edit or omit any advertisement at our discretion. Hotel. We take no responsibility for the accuracy of any advertisement shown and will not be liable for any damages of any kind arising under any circumstances. We offer an advertising service for employers requiring practice managers, groomers, receptionists or other support staff, both locum and violence video games, permanent. From 1st July 2016 the fee for quality, veterinary clinics to place adverts on this page is $99.00 inc GST per advert. For companies who are not veterinary clinics, but wish to nietzsche genealogy second sparknotes, employ veterinary nurses or related professionals the hotel service dissertation, cost is $55.00 inc GST per week ($220.00 minimum fee).
If you would like to place an watchmen essays, advert, please email your advert to firstname.lastname@example.org Please include full contact details. (please note - we will not accept faxed adverts) VSD News - subscribe now for monthly information about service dissertation products, services continuing education courses for Vets and Vet Nurses, brought to you by Kookaburra Veterinary Employment and Vet Suppliers Directory. Kookaburra Veterinary Employment • Ph: +61 2 6650 9090.
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Customer Satisfaction in Hotel Services - Theseus
3 Ways to Write Eye-Catching Resume Bullet Points For Managers. Writing eye-catching resume bullet points for your management resume isn#8217;t a want. Hotel! But, an ABSOLUTE need. This is where many managers go wrong when writing their resumes. HR managers and violence video games controversy essay recruiters look for service quality, managers who make things happen. In fact, you may too . If you#8217;re a manager who recruits and hires, then you#8217;re looking for the #8220;movers and shakers#8221; too. Right? So, how do you go about adding eye-catching bullet points to your resume? How to Write Eye-Catching Resume Bullet Points For Your Management Resume.
Accomplishments demonstrate your skills and view bedroom experience. Hotel Quality! It’s one thing to claim you can do something — it’s another to prove you can. First, know that resume bullet points are more often reserved for achievements. You can identify career accomplishments for your resume in different ways. Start by looking at your past performance reviews. Ponder your most notable projects, tasks, clients, and so on. List awards and violence controversy essay recognition you received as well.
In short, to hotel service, add pizzazz to your resume bullet points is to put context to your accomplishments. The successes you produced for each employer. Using the below STAR formula works great: An example of a STAR statement/resume bullet point would be: Recruited to revitalize and manage an underperforming sales territory characterized by significant account attrition. (Situation) Tasked with reacquiring accounts that had left the company within the last six months. Student Should Not Wear! (Task) Developed contact list for lapsed accounts and hotel service quality initiated contact with decision-makers at each company. (Action) Reacquired 22% of former customers, resulting in $872,000 in revenue. Essay On Discipline! (Result) Quantifying your accomplishments also helps you stand out from others who do the hotel, work you do. Second, realize that every bullet point in your resume needs to your window, start with an action verb. Actions verbs are easy to identify. They are verbs that reflect action.
So, a few example action verbs would include: These same power words are within the service dissertation, body of your bullet points as well. For example, #8220; Generated double-digit increases in new product revenues. Captured competitor replacement business and initiated strategic partnerships with 3 technology industry leaders.#8221; Adding a few accomplishment-specific action verbs go a long way too. Student Uniform Essay! For example, consider starting out your bullet points with one of these actions verbs: Third, don#8217;t settle for #8220;okay#8221; resume bullet points for your resume. [Okay] Introduced BI/analytics platform to the global sales team. Service Dissertation! Provided predictive sales analytics, data visualization, and qualitative CRM research. [Better] Introduced BI/analytics platform to the global sales team. Provided predictive sales analytics, data visualization, and qualitative CRM research for $293MM worth of business development expenditures. [Best] Introduced BI/analytics platform to the global sales team. Provided predictive analytics, data visualization, and should essay qualitative CRM research for $293MM worth of dissertation business development expenditures. Increased revenue by 23.1 % in the first 90 days and nietzsche genealogy of morals essay sparknotes expected to generate an incremental EBITDA of up to $39.7MM in the next year.
Okay, let#8217;s say you#8217;re not a great manager. Service Quality! I often hear from this from management and executive clients that I work with. #8220;My company is a bit small and student essay doesn#8217;t enable me to produce big results. Quality Dissertation! How can I add great resume bullet points to bedroom window essay, my resume that will impress recruiters when I don#8217;t have many achievements to brag about? This can be a concern for some. And, rightfully so. I have a great way of handling this#8230; Ask yourself: What has my company accomplished with my help? Just because you didn#8217;t initiate X [project, cost savings, etc], doesn#8217;t mean you didn#8217;t contribute to the success of X. So, let#8217;s say your company recently expanded its sales to the East coast. But, the hotel service, sales team hasn#8217;t really done much since the launch.
Maybe you didn#8217;t make the watchmen essays, decision for the expansion. Yet, you#8217;ve helped with the service quality dissertation, implementation. For this, an describe view your window essay, achievement might look like this: Supported corporate market share growth — focused on the East coast, which includes Pennsylvania, Massachussets, and Maryland. Worked with sales to put $12.8M into the sales pipeline and quality identify 250+ potential clients. Expected to add nearly $2M in revenue in 2016. Essay Crimes! See what I mean? It#8217;s not necessarily what you#8217;ve initiated, but what you#8217;ve helped your team, department, or company accomplish. Use the above STAR formula to hotel service, help you flesh out eye-catching resume bullet points. Using this writing formula can help you conceptualize and write better resume bullet points. On Discipline Life! Do you need help writing and hotel service quality adding resume bullet points to your management resume?
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Analyzing service quality: a study among Peruvian resort hotels
Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on hotel quality half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. Life? It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of service around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to nietzsche sparknotes, grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S.
Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of quality dissertation Fair Trade in the North and watchmen essays, producers in the South to service, such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by not wear one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in hotel service quality, the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an essay crimes, idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on hotel solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of nietzsche genealogy second sparknotes competition, the self-regulation of the market and hotel quality dissertation, sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. Describe View Your Bedroom Essay? How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by dissertation actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of uniform essay global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by quality dissertation John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of describe view your bedroom essay companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005).
In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of hotel service quality Fair Trade are. As a framework of describe view window reference I will employ a tension between two visions of dissertation Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the watchmen essays, way it is supposed to work. At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the hotel service quality dissertation, neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really?
Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and watchmen essays, thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of quality social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and student not wear uniform, more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of hotel service conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is games, neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to hotel service dissertation, certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against second essay sparknotes destructive effects of service quality dissertation unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is watchmen essays, today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the dissertation, socio-cultural, political and economic impact on essay crimes the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to service dissertation, avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade.
During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on essay life dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by hotel quality consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in video controversy, campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and hotel service, Snedker in on discipline, a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the hotel service dissertation, livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship.
To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the genealogy second essay sparknotes, negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for hotel service quality dissertation changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and watchmen essays, economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream.
Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from hotel service dissertation being purely an genealogy second essay sparknotes, activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of hotel service dissertation labelling organizations in on discipline life, the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of hotel collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and essay crimes, expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by hotel service dissertation several key practices that are practiced by watchmen essays the labelling organizations as well as by hotel quality dissertation the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for not wear essay a living wage for producers; an emphasis on hotel service quality dissertation development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and not wear essay, pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the quality dissertation, total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO.
These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for on discipline in student co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and service quality, another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the uniform, Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is quality, able to decide on and distribute the video games essay, Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. Service Dissertation? These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the of morals essay sparknotes, use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the hotel quality dissertation, core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and essay crimes, importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the hotel service dissertation, above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006).
These trade standards vary by essay life product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at service quality dissertation, US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and genealogy second essay, a social premium of US$0.05 per service dissertation pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is describe your essay, still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on service the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in should not wear uniform essay, Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for hotel service quality dissertation a box (18.14 kg) of should conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box.
Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). Hotel Dissertation? With market prices in watchmen essays, Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. Hotel Service Dissertation? 6. In order to violence video games essay, provide a sense of the scope of service quality dissertation Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and your bedroom, figures that describe the ‘success story’ of hotel service dissertation Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of watchmen essays 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is hotel quality dissertation, illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to watchmen essays, continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only hotel, amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30).
The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by on discipline the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for dissertation example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)
The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about essay on discipline in student Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in service quality dissertation, Europe by should uniform essay 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and hotel dissertation, these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in essay crimes, Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and dissertation, the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005).
In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of essay crimes nearly 90 percent per year. Quality? Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. View Your Essay? alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of dissertation which are currently certifiable. Watchmen Essays? Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the service quality, bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. In Student? According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in hotel dissertation, bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the nietzsche genealogy second essay, Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and service quality, they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of nietzsche second cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade.
In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of hotel service dissertation devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4)
There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to essay crimes, changes in dissertation, the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and essay crimes, benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for hotel service quality dissertation example declined by watchmen essays 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). Service? And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to controversy, a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in hotel quality dissertation, the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to view your bedroom window essay, less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in dissertation, the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).
Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to controversy essay, more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the hotel service quality, effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of view your bedroom window agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on hotel quality dissertation which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.
Fair Trade tries to genealogy essay, address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and service, a social premium. Video Games Controversy Essay? But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of quality Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). Essay Crimes? While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and hotel quality dissertation, more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to watchmen essays, modify the hotel quality dissertation, neoliberal economic model and to transform the watchmen essays, entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in hotel, a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of on discipline contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of service quality dissertation trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at bedroom essay, the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to hotel service, create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in watchmen essays, the Global South.
Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the hotel quality dissertation, trading system work for bedroom essay everyone [is], in hotel service quality dissertation, fact, a neo-liberal solution to essay crimes, the problems with trade” (p. Dissertation? 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to video games, free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries.
And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the hotel service quality dissertation, 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and describe view bedroom essay, ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and hotel service quality, practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and of morals second essay sparknotes, it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and hotel service quality, liberalization. This type of watchmen essays argument often refers to hotel, socio-cultural changes in terms of the watchmen essays, consciousness of hotel market participants.
Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in describe your bedroom window, terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and service dissertation, global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to student not wear essay, the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in hotel service dissertation, its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in view your bedroom window essay, countries of the quality, South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and video controversy essay, trade in general and service quality dissertation, that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and student uniform, its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. Hotel Quality? This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section.
The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. Violence Controversy? I will assess the socio-cultural impact of quality Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on video games essay the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of quality these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of should not wear essay Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. Hotel Dissertation? These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on nietzsche genealogy essay several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the hotel quality dissertation, producers in a variety of on discipline in student life ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the hotel service quality, most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in violence games essay, incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the hotel, unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).
10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and essay, from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and hotel dissertation, interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Violence? Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in hotel service, income due to violence controversy, the Fair Trade minimum price and hotel service quality, the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and essay crimes, its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the dissertation, price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the essay in student, non-monetary benefits and the organizational and hotel dissertation, political impacts of should uniform essay Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in service quality, transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. Describe View Bedroom Window? 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and hotel service quality, an additional social premium.
This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for uniform example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the hotel service dissertation, difference between the student, world market price as defined for hotel Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and describe your window essay, workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by dissertation the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for student uniform essay individual producers range from hotel doubling their income to watchmen essays, just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits.
All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on hotel quality the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the violence video games controversy essay, different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of quality Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at essay crimes, some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). Hotel Service Dissertation? In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the essay life, conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for service dissertation organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on essay on discipline a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the hotel service quality dissertation, overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59).
And in a cooperative in watchmen essays, El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in hotel service dissertation, both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Genealogy Of Morals Second Essay? Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about hotel dissertation these networks and essay crimes, dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. Hotel Quality Dissertation? As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and watchmen essays, assumes incorrectly that costs for hotel service quality dissertation certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the video controversy essay, prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to hotel, the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the essay, provision of credit at hotel quality, reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to essay in student life, 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is hotel dissertation, immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to video games, the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the hotel service quality dissertation, payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).
The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of view bedroom their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to hotel service dissertation, sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of violence controversy their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of dissertation Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for life Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for dissertation conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for watchmen essays all the service quality, coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505).
Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and your bedroom window, the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and hotel, use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of student should uniform essay a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to hotel quality dissertation, Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of essay living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of hotel service dissertation increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on violence the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the quality dissertation, impact is violence games, very different depending on a variety of factors. Service Quality Dissertation? There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. Nietzsche Genealogy Second Essay Sparknotes? But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is service, that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market.
The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and essay, market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in hotel service quality dissertation, the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for watchmen essays example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in hotel service quality, a case study in violence, El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21).
Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). Hotel Quality? It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is essay crimes, spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of hotel dissertation indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in video controversy, schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of quality dissertation woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001). Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work.
There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and genealogy essay sparknotes, participation in quality, decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is essay, clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and service quality dissertation, economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on describe bedroom window the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market.
If cooperatives are engaged in service, Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in violence games essay, large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and hotel service dissertation, there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to essay crimes, establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to hotel service, Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. Essay? La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to hotel dissertation, benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the violence games essay, best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).
14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. Hotel Service Quality Dissertation? imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). Watchmen Essays? These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is hotel service quality dissertation, extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the essay crimes, possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the dissertation, impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the bedroom window essay, organization would go on.
We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in hotel dissertation, the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and violence games essay, religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). Hotel Dissertation? And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by essay on discipline in student thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of service quality dissertation which are important to video games controversy, the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and dissertation, cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the describe essay, market power of producers, in hotel service dissertation, providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is nietzsche genealogy of morals second, still a lack of hotel quality consistent research on the impact and watchmen essays, the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the hotel, attempts to describe view window essay, come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on service quality dissertation Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the violence video games, most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005).
The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to service quality, quantify, but the essay crimes, qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to hotel service, use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on violence video games controversy essay investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is hotel service quality dissertation, divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to essay on discipline, the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the hotel, producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the describe your window, price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to hotel service, all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas.
15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out student of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of hotel dissertation advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Nietzsche Second Sparknotes? Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is hotel service, however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the essay sparknotes, market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the service quality dissertation, margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the student should not wear essay, margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of hotel dissertation Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the nietzsche second essay sparknotes, inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.
In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the hotel service quality dissertation, return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the second, money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by hotel quality dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in essay crimes, supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only service dissertation, include one part of the extra money consumers spent on your essay the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from service increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at nietzsche genealogy, least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.
But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the hotel quality dissertation, next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of uniform Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is quality dissertation, supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in nietzsche genealogy second essay sparknotes, ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the hotel quality, consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and controversy, equality into the market. While in conventional markets the hotel, interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for violence games controversy essay the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is hotel dissertation, social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Student Should Uniform Essay? Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and hotel service dissertation, consumer links that make the conditions and nietzsche sparknotes, lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the service quality dissertation, geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the genealogy second essay sparknotes, market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the service quality, neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139).
Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into describe view bedroom the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to hotel quality dissertation, the impressive rise of essay on discipline life ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and hotel service dissertation, environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Should Essay? Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at quality, rates of student should not wear essay 20 percent per year and hotel service, already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is watchmen essays, huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. Service Dissertation? This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. In Student? 20 It is important to hotel service quality, notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in student not wear uniform, surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of hotel their individual markets. Essay On Discipline In Student? This phenomenon has been termed the hotel service quality dissertation, “30:3 syndrome” and it is student not wear uniform, one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for hotel service dissertation change (Roozen Boersma, 2002).
Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in not wear uniform, favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Quality Dissertation? Instead of being characterized by watchmen essays external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in hotel quality dissertation, Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is window, multilayered and complex. Service Quality? Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the view bedroom window essay, legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. Hotel Service Quality Dissertation? A model of describe bedroom window alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into service quality the price and is fairer in violence video games essay, its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on hotel service dissertation the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by student not wear uniform invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.
And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in hotel service, how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on essay crimes this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and hotel service quality, identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). Student Not Wear Uniform Essay? One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Hotel Service Quality? Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and student not wear, they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is hotel service, contaminated and at the same time sold at not wear uniform, lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about dissertation consumer/producer links.
Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in sparknotes, my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the hotel dissertation, consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to video controversy, one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.
A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and service quality dissertation, “responsible” consumer is given by watchmen essays the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on service quality dissertation the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. Video Controversy Essay? In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the dissertation, standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is watchmen essays, not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is hotel service, however important to not let the watchmen essays, experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the hotel dissertation, other products through conventional markets. Essay Crimes? There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the service, power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of essay on discipline producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and quality dissertation, prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to uniform essay, make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade.
Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to dissertation, which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on nietzsche genealogy essay competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to quality dissertation, far less than one percent. Watchmen Essays? But Fair Trade has potential to hotel service, grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the student should uniform, recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in hotel service quality dissertation, the availability and range of products and watchmen essays, opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of service dissertation mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.
A general critique comes from violence conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. Service Dissertation? 26 While this critique overestimates the on discipline life, power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and service quality, although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. Watchmen Essays? In order to service quality dissertation, avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to essay crimes, diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers.
Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in hotel quality, Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and essay crimes, exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Hotel Service? Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of nietzsche of morals second essay Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Quality Dissertation? Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of watchmen essays Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and quality dissertation, perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices.
Some of the your bedroom window, smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of service quality dissertation their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. Violence? They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in dissertation, Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in of morals essay sparknotes, 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of service dissertation its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). On Discipline In Student Life? And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is hotel dissertation, using the Fair Trade label to on discipline life, make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to hotel, be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).
Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the view your window essay, fact that it is dissertation, still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the video, Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the service quality dissertation, asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of essay crimes their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of hotel quality all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is on discipline, growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by hotel service quality dissertation more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Student Should Not Wear Essay? Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of hotel quality “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005).
The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of essay on discipline Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the hotel service, cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to student should essay, influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. Service? This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out view bedroom above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to hotel quality dissertation, pay more.
Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the watchmen essays, segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the hotel quality dissertation, establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by essay crimes creating guidelines and standards for dissertation internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the watchmen essays, rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the hotel dissertation, price of production and externalize social and violence essay, environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into hotel dissertation the developments of this general process of the increase of should uniform essay labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales.
This label is supposed to “ensure the service quality dissertation, sustainable production of high-quality coffee by essay crimes addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of hotel service all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).
This is an essay on discipline, extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of dissertation Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to genealogy essay sparknotes, 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the dissertation, amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at should not wear essay, the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Hotel Service Quality? Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of essay on discipline a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of service certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to bedroom essay, influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and hotel, there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.
There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on view the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). Dissertation? It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of video controversy standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of service quality dissertation semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification.
Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the nietzsche of morals second, demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on quality dissertation the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in student should not wear uniform, an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the hotel service quality, dominant paradigm in view window, the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from hotel neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the violence controversy essay, Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of hotel service both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by watchmen essays institutions from the centre right like the dissertation, World Economic Forum and by on discipline in student life the Fair Trade movement?
This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by quality using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and describe window essay, naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is hotel dissertation, also the potential for in student change. Service Quality? Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for essay crimes change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is service, first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and essay crimes, taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of hotel quality Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on bedroom these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the service dissertation, rise of student private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at hotel service dissertation, the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways.
Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of should not wear uniform essay Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and hotel service quality dissertation, public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is essay crimes, politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of hotel service quality dissertation power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and on discipline, not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the hotel service dissertation, European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of watchmen essays cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of dissertation cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).
The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the watchmen essays, real costs for quality developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is watchmen essays, as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of service quality dissertation production. Essay Crimes? This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to quality, labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. Your Window? 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and hotel quality dissertation, its sisters World Bank and violence games essay, International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is hotel dissertation, “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the in student life, deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in hotel quality, supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the watchmen essays, Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and service, many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the nietzsche second, development of Fair Trade and service quality, the implications of the video games, WTO rules for its functioning. Hotel? 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the watchmen essays, Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is dissertation, captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in watchmen essays, a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against hotel service dissertation deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of essay crimes Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and hotel, solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement.
Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the watchmen essays, structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for hotel dissertation real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of violence video games controversy Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to hotel, understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the view bedroom, effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade.
In order to service quality dissertation, situate the emergence of essay crimes Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of hotel service a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and violence video games essay, seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for service quality the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and should not wear essay, money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an hotel quality, external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in essay on discipline in student, the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on hotel service quality the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. Should Not Wear Essay? These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and service quality dissertation, privatization of natural resources and counter the essay crimes, dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is hotel service quality dissertation, important to student uniform, note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to hotel service dissertation, contain dissent and to enable the essay crimes, neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004).
And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is service dissertation, part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the watchmen essays, unleashing of markets for hotel service quality the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. Essay Crimes? While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on quality the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the genealogy second essay sparknotes, lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only service dissertation, take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in violence controversy, the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of hotel quality production.
This means that the watchmen essays, social cost of production is passed on hotel quality dissertation to the producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and in student, environmental cost of quality dissertation production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the genealogy of morals second essay sparknotes, real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into service dissertation the production of the product.” Fair Trade is essay crimes, thus not abandoning the quality, market, but it also does not provide a free market solution.
Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the essay on discipline life, social and environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in service, the production process to function in essay crimes, the market. Hotel Dissertation? The essence of Fair Trade is according to uniform, Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of hotel service quality producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and watchmen essays, that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and hotel, Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the watchmen essays, social and service dissertation, environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the essay in student life, idea that the setting of prices on the market as an dissertation, automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation.
As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to video, prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of dissertation society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is window, part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and hotel quality, contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the video controversy essay, impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in hotel service quality dissertation, and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the window, question what Fair Trade is in hotel quality dissertation, terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against nietzsche genealogy of morals essay destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is service quality, part of describe view your essay capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and hotel quality dissertation, partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement.
These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Nietzsche Of Morals Essay Sparknotes? Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for service quality dissertation different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in essay crimes, Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the hotel, understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and genealogy of morals second essay, partly mutually supportive interests play out hotel depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in essay crimes, the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the hotel service dissertation, one hand the describe your window essay, mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of hotel quality dissertation Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in nietzsche second essay sparknotes, benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in dissertation, further re-embedding the market. But on essay crimes the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of hotel dissertation their shareholders.
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Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Watchmen Essays? Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma.
2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. Hotel Quality? excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. Student Not Wear Uniform Essay? “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. Service Quality? “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. Nietzsche Of Morals Sparknotes? “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and service quality, U.S.
Hegemony Compared” Politics and on discipline in student, Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198. Starbucks. 2006a. Dissertation? Beyond the cup.
Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. View Your Essay? 2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne.
2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. Quality? 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and essay on discipline, their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of hotel Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for video controversy Project Funded by quality the Community and Resource Development Program.
New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. Essay Crimes? “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. Hotel Quality Dissertation? “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005.
Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to on discipline life, consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. Hotel Quality Dissertation? 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century.
Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and essay crimes, the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by quality the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006).
Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and watchmen essays, poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of hotel quality European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for nietzsche genealogy second Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for service quality dissertation certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006).
Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. Essay Crimes? slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in service, a carton. Nietzsche Second Essay? Tolerance: 5% of dissertation packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is on discipline in student life, fluctuating highly. Service Quality Dissertation? The current prices are summarized by in student the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to dissertation, the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the should uniform, corresponding month last year.
In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of hotel service dissertation US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to essay crimes, less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over hotel service 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the describe, world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.
In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and service, Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the essay on discipline in student life, Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is service quality, based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for watchmen essays conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is service dissertation, interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade.
Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the essay crimes, only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in hotel service quality dissertation, London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of not wear essay unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic.
According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for hotel service dissertation farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to genealogy essay, feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in service quality dissertation, some of the essay crimes, poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into hotel service quality more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004).
19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. Essay Crimes? A survey of 30.000 consumers in quality, Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to student should not wear uniform essay, help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to hotel service quality dissertation, boycott for watchmen essays their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on hotel service dissertation food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the describe your, sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and hotel service dissertation, recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at watchmen essays, some time in the last year. A third of service quality dissertation consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Violence Essay? Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in hotel quality dissertation, 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to watchmen essays, Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in quality dissertation, the long term.
For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the essay crimes, ATO, and the consumer; and service, the partnership between these stakeholders is essay on discipline life, based on a combination of service dissertation market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and nietzsche sparknotes, transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in hotel service quality dissertation, most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and nietzsche genealogy of morals second essay, create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by hotel dissertation including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. On Discipline In Student? Since it is hotel dissertation, a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and essay crimes, Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed?
Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per hotel kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for describe bedroom window essay producers. Quality? The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices.
A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the view window, registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to hotel, Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for watchmen essays compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for hotel service quality dissertation by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by watchmen essays getting the state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for hotel quality dissertation less than one-third of should not wear uniform developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of hotel service quality WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method.
Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Essay On Discipline Life? Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and hotel service, integration of the violence video games controversy, late 19 th century, as one that involves the dissertation, replacement of local and video essay, traditional socio-cultural relations by hotel quality dissertation mere market relations.
In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and not wear uniform essay, land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the service quality, attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to describe view your bedroom window essay, answer with this framework is the service quality dissertation, rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the essay crimes, protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and hotel dissertation, invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in second sparknotes, India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. Hotel Service Dissertation? McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for student should not wear uniform their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on dissertation workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. Student Not Wear Uniform? The fact is that the two have to be combined.
Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. Hotel Quality? ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and essay crimes, not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).
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core gpa resume Take advantage of. our free job bank. The Listserv is a free, e-mail discussion group. It provides legal professionals with the chance to network and ask profession-related questions. This long-running column examines ethics in the paralegal profession. Do you have an ethical dilemma or question? E-mail us today.
Writing Paralegal Resumes. Tips for experienced and hotel service quality dissertation new paralegals. By Linda T. Essay Crimes! Chin. Many paralegal students who have just graduated from college or who have completed a paralegal studies program most likely are searching for their first paralegal jobs. Experienced paralegals also might be looking to change jobs. Service Quality! This article will assist both new and essay crimes experienced paralegals in drafting resumes and quality cover letters that will be concise but comprehensive, appealing but not overwhelming to prospective employers. Sample paralegal resumes and cover letters also are included. Resumes for New Paralegals. Let’s begin with some general pointers. Violence Video Controversy! Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on top of the resume.
Use more common computer fonts, such as 12-point Times New Roman. Your name can be bold and a larger font than the hotel service quality, rest of the content in the resume. Try to keep the resume to one page, if possible. Violence Video Controversy! Prospective employers receive numerous resumes so they might not read resumes beyond the first page. Many resumes usually contain four to five sections.
Some resumes might include sections such as Honors and Awards or Achievements. Hotel! For the purpose of should uniform essay, this article, I have concentrated on these sections: Career Objective, Education, Experience, Skills and Other Relevant Experience, if applicable. Career objective. This is important for several reasons. Service Dissertation! It’s the first paragraph after you provide your personal information and it immediately lets the prospective employers know what your career goal is, and encourages them to continue reading the resume. You should express your career objective by essay on discipline writing a 1-sentence description of the job you are seeking. Service Quality Dissertation! If you are unsure of the area of essay life, legal practice in which you want to specialize, focus your objective to a general practice of law. Some examples of career objectives are: “To secure an entry-level position as a paralegal in a real estate law firm,” or “To secure a position in service quality dissertation, a law firm that can use a legal professional with outstanding research and writing skills.”
Education. This section is an important part of the resume for those new paralegals who have just completed their education. If you are a new paralegal with limited or no work experience, this is the genealogy second, section on quality, which you should focus. Indicate your degree or the paralegal certificate you completed, your major, the on discipline in student life, college from which you graduated, and quality the date of your graduation. List the courses that are relevant to the jobs for which you are applying. In general, law firms seek prospective employees who have skills in areas of legal research and writing, litigation and law office management. You also should expand on student not wear, your leadership and academic activities in this section. List your membership in all student and hotel service quality academic organizations.
Emphasize your leadership positions and essay crimes highlight your respective duties and achievements while serving in those leadership roles. If you were a member of the organization but didn’t hold a leadership position, specify your contributions to the organizations. For example, you might have arranged for a speaker, publicized an event or coordinated a social event for the organization. Did you write for hotel service, a college newspaper, or contribute or edit an article for a newsletter or the watchmen essays, college yearbook? If so, these activities should be included in hotel service quality, your resume since they show initiative and video leadership qualities — characteristics that all employers seek in a prospective employee. Finally, if you have received academic achievements such as being on the dean’s list or graduating with various honors, emphasize these awards and honors in your resume. Experience. This section is the meat of a resume.
While your work history as a new paralegal is minimal, there are other areas besides employment that can be classified as experience. Serving in an internship program is an excellent way to highlight your duties and hotel service dissertation responsibilities as well as the should essay, skills you obtained. Under this section, list the duties you performed, as well as the skills that were enhanced during this internship. If you have participated in service quality dissertation, more than one internship, list the violence essay, most recent internship first with the relevant dates. Another type of experience is the Academic Service Learning component that many colleges have incorporated into their academic curriculum. St. John’s University in hotel quality dissertation, New York, for example, defines Academic Service Learning as a teaching method in essay on discipline in student, which students learn and develop through organized service that reinforces course content. This organized service takes place in nonprofit organizations such as bar associations, senior citizen centers, Legal Aid offices or other organizations that provide legal services at reduced fees or at no cost to the clients. If you have participated in an Academic Service Learning program, you should indicate the hotel quality dissertation, organization in which you served, and your duties while serving in that capacity.
For example, if you helped draft health planning documents in an Elder Law Clinic as part of the Elder Law course you took, you should incorporate these duties in the Experience section of your resume. Skills. This section of the resume focuses on essay crimes, special skills you have that you might not have highlighted in other sections of the hotel dissertation, resume. Are you familiar with Microsoft Word? Do you have skills in other software applications such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Excel?
Are you an expert in using Westlaw and/or Lexis as a research tool? Are you proficient in a foreign language? If you have any of these skills, include them in the skills section of the resume. However, be honest in assessing your proficiency. Genealogy Second Essay! For example, don’t indicate fluency in Spanish if you can only read it, but not speak it. Other relevant experience. The last section of the resume is for other relevant experience that you might have but was not addressed in the other sections of the resume. For example, if you demonstrated leadership skills while serving in a civic or community project or activity, then certainly include this experience. The Cover Letter From New Paralegals.
The cover letter should have the hotel service, following information: your name, address, and the date, name and title of the person to whom you are writing, the company or organization and the relevant salutation. Try to get the exact name of the person to essay crimes whom you are writing since this will be more personal. The first paragraph of the cover letter should explain why you are writing and indicate how you found out about the available position. Hotel Service Dissertation! For example, “I am writing to student should not wear essay apply for the position of paralegal as advertised in the June 20 New York Times,” or “We met last month at the paralegal conference and I am following up on my interest to obtain a paralegal position in your law firm.” The next few paragraphs are where you want to highlight and discuss your qualifications, achievements and experience. Summarize your experience rather than repeat what already is in the resume. Discuss why your qualifications and experience are a good fit with the company and dissertation what you can contribute to games controversy essay that company. The final paragraph closes the letter by quality dissertation thanking the employers for watchmen essays, their consideration of your application and notifying them where they can contact you for an interview. Also indicate that your resume is service quality dissertation, enclosed and that references are available upon request. Resumes for Experienced Paralegals.
Many of on discipline in student, my recommendations for hotel service, resumes for experienced paralegals are similar to resumes for new paralegals. Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on the top of the resume and it should be limited to one page, if possible. Resumes for experienced paralegals should contain the following or similar sections: Career Objective, Professional Experience, Skills, Other Relevant Experience and Education. Career objective. Window! This is important for experienced paralegals. It signals to the prospective employer whether the applicant is dissertation, seeking a career change, a position with greater responsibility or a lateral move to nietzsche genealogy second essay sparknotes a different company.
For example: “To secure a senior level paralegal position with supervisory responsibilities” indicates to the employers that the applicant has prior paralegal experience and is seeking further professional growth. Education. The experienced paralegal should indicate the relevant information under the Education section. You should provide your degree or the service dissertation, certificate completed as well as your major, the essay crimes, college from quality where you graduated and the date of your graduation. List any awards and honors you received upon graduation. Since prospective employers will focus more on video games controversy, the work history of hotel dissertation, experienced paralegals, the education information can be included either at essay crimes the beginning or at service quality dissertation the end of the resume.
Experience. For the experienced paralegal, this section of the resume is the nietzsche genealogy of morals second, most important information provided by the applicant in engaging the interest of the prospective employers. The most common form of presentation is to list jobs in reverse chronological order; therefore, you should list your most recent job first. Indicate the company’s or law firm’s name, list your job titles and dates of employment. Use active verbs to describe your duties and hotel service dissertation responsibilities, and be consistent in the use of the verb tense. For examples: “Developed systems for billing clients,” “Conducted extensive research for class action lawsuit” and “Maintained and updated court dates.” Skills. This section is essay crimes, where you can highlight your technological skills. At a minimum, employers expect their experienced paralegals to be proficient in word processing, and to hotel service quality be able to navigate e-mails and prepare spreadsheets using Excel.
Do you have computer-assisted research skills using Westlaw or Lexis? Are you proficient in other software applications such as CaseMap, LiveNote or Abacus Law? If so, don’t hesitate to list them. Prospective employers always are seeking applicants who are technologically savvy to help make their law offices become more efficient. Other relevant experience. If you have had relevant experience other than work experience, you can describe it under this section. Were you an active member of a national or state paralegal organization?
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For example: “As the enclosed resume indicates, I have had over 10 years of paralegal experience in student not wear uniform, employment law” or “My 10 years of experience include working with cases involving bankruptcy law.” Follow up as to why this experience will benefit the service quality, law firm. You also can highlight specific skills, such as the ability to use computer-assisted research or software applications that help with the management of essay crimes, a law office. The final paragraph closes the hotel quality dissertation, letter by thanking the employers for their consideration of your application and notifying the employers where they can contact you for watchmen essays, an interview. Hotel Quality Dissertation! Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and that references are available upon request. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and Dempf, LLP. I am writing to apply for the position of Paralegal in essay crimes, your litigation department as advertised in the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. Hotel! I have just completed the ABA Approved-paralegal program at Gainsville State University . My coursework and my internship experience have given me the skills to qualify for view bedroom, this position. As you can see from my resume, in addition to hotel service dissertation coursework in the areas of civil litigation and on discipline in student life trial practice, I have enhanced my skills in the practice of service, litigation through my internship experiences.
I have had practical experience in essay crimes, legal research, writing complaints and legal memoranda, and filing pleadings. I am highly proficient and comfortable in the use of technology. I am proficient in hotel dissertation, using Westlaw to perform research. I am also skilled in using Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel and Outlook. Thank you for your consideration.
I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications for this position. Essay Crimes! Enclosed in my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. To secure a position as a paralegal in a law firm that specializes in litigation. June 2008: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , New Jersey. Paralegal Certificate Program, ABA Approved. Coursework: Introduction to Law, Civil Litigation, Legal Research and Writing, Tort Law, Family Law, Elder Law, Real Estate Law, Trial Practice. Leadership and hotel quality dissertation Academic Acitivities: President of Legal Society (2007-2008) – Organized activities for. students in the Paralegal Program; arranged for speakers on legal issues; coordinated visits to watchmen essays courts.
Feb. Service Dissertation! 2008-May 2008: Paralegal Intern, Smith Smith, Smithtown , New Jersey. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Helped with filing pleadings. Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library. Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared demand letters. Sept. Student Essay! 2007-Jan. Hotel! 2008: Academic Service Learning in not wear uniform, conjunction with Elder Law course, Senior Legal Clinic, Newtown , New Jersey.
Assisted in hotel quality dissertation, drafting advance health planning documents. Interviewed clients for describe view your essay, case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted in drafting health proxies and living wills. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw. Coordinated Annual Fund-Raising Event for the Homeless since 2000. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and Dempf, LLP.
I am writing to apply for the position of dissertation, supervising paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. Essay Crimes! After more than 10 years of experience as a litigation paralegal, I am seeking a new position that can provide me with additional responsibilities and hotel quality an opportunity to use my supervisory skills. As you can see from my resume, I have had extensive experience as a litigation paralegal and my responsibilities have increased over the years. Recently, I was given the additional responsibility of supervising and training secretarial staff and student interns. In that capacity, I have developed my mentoring and supervisory skills.
I am highly proficient and comfortable in the use of technology. I am proficient in using Westlaw and watchmen essays Lexis to perform research. Dissertation! I have assisted the attorneys in my firm in making presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint and have created spreadsheets using Microsoft Excel. I have become skilled in violence video, the use of software applications to assist with the management of complex litigation cases. As a result, I can offer your firm a high level of expertise in using Concordance, Summation and CaseMap. I believe I can contribute much to your firm. Thank you for taking time from your schedule to consider me for this position. I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications. Enclosed is my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS.
345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. To secure a position as a senior-level paralegal with supervisory responsibilities. July 2000-Present: Paralegal, Kleinsmith Associates, Newark , N.J. Provide legal and administrative support for civil litigation firm. Supervise and hotel quality train secretarial staff and student interns. Implement an watchmen essays online billing system for hotel dissertation, clients. Draft legal memoranda and client correspondence. Conduct research employing online resources such as Westlaw and Lexis.
Assist with document production and trial preparation. July 1998-June 2000: Paralegal, Smith Smith, Smithtown , N.J. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Assisted with filing pleadings. Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library. Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared billings for essay in student life, clients. Feb. 1998-June 1998: Paralegal Intern, Legal Aid of hotel service dissertation, New Jersey , Newtown , N.J. Interviewed clients for case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints.
Assisted with document production. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw, Lexis, Concordance, Summation and CaseMap. Member of the American Alliance of Paralegals and the Legal Assistants Association of New Jersey; organized workshops on technology for paralegals. Participated in watchmen essays, the pro bono program initiated by dissertation Kleinsmith Associates. June 1998: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , N.J. Bachelor of Arts, Legal Studies, ABA-Approved Paralegal Program.
Linda T. Chin is an assistant professor at St. John’s University in New York City. Watchmen Essays! She teaches in the American Bar Association-approved legal studies program, which prepares students to work as paralegals in the legal profession. Professor Chin’s field of expertise is employment and elder law.